Monochrome Glazed Biscuit Porcelain :
Chinese porcelain with a clear turquoise, green or aubergine glaze over a biscuit body was exported to Europe from the Kangxi period (1662-1722) onwards. The brightly colour with a clear shiny glaze was like nothing produced in Europe at the time. Monochrome glazed Chinese export porcelain was especially popular in France during the 18th century and to this day many pieces can be found in French private collections. French taste in the second quarter of the 18th century tired of Chinese blue and white porcelain, indeed by this time France was producing it`s own blue and white porcelain at St.Cloud among other factories. Collectors like the duc d`Aumont had a large collection of monochrome Chinese porcelain, with celadons as a favourite. They were sometimes made more French by the addition of ormolu mounts, 43 % of his collection had mounts.
Objects For The Scholar`s Desk :
The term `Scholar`s object` refers to something used by a Chinese scholar in his studio, it includes everything from tables, screens and chairs to the smaller objects found on the scholar`s desk. The material used for these desk objects varied greatly, from bamboo to stone, ivory, wood and metal, but ceramics were by far the most commonly used material, even though ceramics rated lowest in ranking of importance. Bamboo, ivory or wood might not be durable enough and metal was sometimes too heavy but ceramic objects could be thrown or moulded in to an infinite variety of forms. Most of the objects made centered around the functions of writing and painting. Brushpots of different sizes and shape were needed to take the various types of brush, the same applies to brushrests. Water droppers for adding water to dry solid ink when it was ground on an inkstones, as well as the inkstones themselves were all needed, as were water-pots and brushwashers, all of these could be made of porcelain. But these were not merely functional items, they conveyed symbolic mean, often enhancing scholarly virtues and the wish for longevity. They were meant to inspire the writer, poet and artist but it is clear they could also exhibit a great sense of humour, sometimes having almost child like quality. Objects for the scholar`s desk were made out of many different ceramic bodies, during the Song Dynasty (960-1279) Qingbai porcelain was most frequently used, often in moulded form but by the late 17th and early 18th century biscuit porcelain with coloured glazes such as green, aubergine or turquoise were popular. It appears highly likely some of these objects were shipped to Europe at the time, especially France and were they were seen as whimsical novelties divorced from their true scholarly function.
Fu Dog, Buddhist Lion or Fo Dog :
Stock number: 22999.
When Buddhist priests, or possibly traders, brought stories to China about stone dogs guarding the entry to Indian Buddhist temples, Chinese sculptors modelled statues after native dogs for use outside their temples. The mythic version of the animal, was known as the Dog of Fo, the word Fo being Chinese for Buddha. The Buddhist version of the dog was originally introduced to Han China as the protector of dharma and these dogs have been found in religious art as early as c.200 BC. Gradually they were incorporated as guardians of the Chinese Imperial dharm. However, Chinese sensitivity metamorphosed the dog into a lion, even though lions were not indigenous to China, since this seems more appropriate to the dignity of an emperor when he used the beasts to guard his gates. The mythic dog is sometimes associated with feng shui, and are often called Fu Dogs. Fu means `happiness` in Chinese; however, the term `Fu Dog` and its variant Foo Dog, are not used in Chinese. Instead, they are known as Rui Shi (`auspicious lions`) or simply Shi (lions). There are various styles of imperial guardian lions reflecting influences from different time periods, imperial dynasties, and regions of China. These styles vary in their artistic detail and adornment as well as in the depiction of the lions from fierce to serene.